Data structures are the backbone of computer science and programming. They help us store and manipulate data efficiently, which is crucial for building robust software applications. One such fundamental data structure is the “stack.” If you’ve ever played with a stack of blocks or flipped through a stack of papers, you already have a basic understanding of how a stack works in programming. In this guide, we’ll delve into what a stack is, how it operates, and why it’s so important in various applications.

What is a Stack? The Basics

The Core Concept

A stack is like a collection of items, but with some rules. Imagine a stack of books on a table. You can only add a new book to the top of the stack (push), and if you want to remove a book, you can only take off the one that’s on top (pop). This is known as the Last-In, First-Out (LIFO) principle. The last book you put on the stack will be the first one you have to take off.

The Operations You Can Perform

  • Push: This is like adding a book to the top of your stack of books. When you push a new item onto the stack, it becomes the new top item.
  • Pop: This is like removing the top book from your stack of books. When you pop an item, you remove the top item from the stack.
  • Peek: This lets you take a quick look at the top item without actually removing it. It’s like glancing at the top book in the stack to see its title.
  • Size: This tells you how many items (or books, in our analogy) are in the stack.
  • Empty: This checks if the stack is empty. If it is, it’s like having no books on the table at all.

How is a Stack Built? The Nuts and Bolts

Using an Array

One way to build a stack is by using an array. Think of an array as a row of pigeonholes. When you push an item onto the stack, you’re essentially putting it into the next available pigeonhole. When you pop an item, you take it out of the last filled pigeonhole. The benefit of using an array is that it’s straightforward and efficient in terms of memory. However, you need to know the maximum size of your stack in advance, which can sometimes be limiting.

Using a Linked List

Another way to build a stack is by using a linked list. Imagine each item as a box, and each box has a string that connects it to the next box in line. When you push a new item, you’re adding a new box at the front and updating the string to connect it to the previous top box. When you pop an item, you’re removing the front box and updating the string to point to the next box in line. The advantage here is flexibility—you can add as many items as you want without worrying about size limitations. However, this method can use more memory.

Why is a Stack Useful? Real-World Applications

Function Calls in Programming

When a function in a program is called, all its details are pushed onto a stack. When the function is done, these details are popped off, allowing the program to continue where it left off.

Evaluating Expressions

Stacks are used to evaluate mathematical expressions like “5 + 2 * 3.” The numbers and operators are pushed and popped off the stack in a specific sequence to perform the calculations.

Browser History

Ever wondered how the ‘Back’ button in your web browser works? Each webpage you visit is pushed onto a stack. When you hit ‘Back,’ the most recent webpage is popped off, and you’re taken to the previous one.

Undo and Redo Features

In text editors or graphic design software, every change you make can be pushed onto a stack. If you want to undo a change, you simply pop it off the stack.

Symbol Matching in Code

When you’re writing code, each opening bracket is pushed onto a stack, and each closing bracket is popped off. This helps in ensuring that all brackets are properly matched, making your code error-free.


The stack is a simple yet powerful data structure that plays a critical role in computer science and programming. Its LIFO nature makes it ideal for a variety of applications, from managing function calls to enabling undo features in software. Understanding how a stack works and how to implement it using arrays or linked lists is essential for anyone diving into the world of programming. So the next time you see a stack of anything—be it books, dishes, or even blocks—remember, you’re looking at a real-world example of one of computing’s most fundamental concepts.